Our study used a review of existing literature and policy documents. This includes analysing catch data between the EU and countries with which it concluded Fisheries Partnership Agreements in West Africa between 2010 and 2014. On 9 December 2015, the European Union and the Republic of Liberia signed a new Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreement (TPPA) on the fishing opportunities for UNION vessels, the financial compensation to be paid by the Union and the arrangements for sectoral support to Liberia`s fisheries sector. The new protocol allows 28 chain seiners and 6 surface long seine vessels to fish for tuna and tuna species in waters under Liberian jurisdiction, based on a reference tonnage of 6,500 tonnes. In return, the EU will pay an average annual compensation of €650,000 to Liberia, 50% of which is intended to support Liberia`s fisheries policy, including strengthening its fisheries monitoring and surveillance capacities-, -. The Protocol provides the EU with fishing opportunities for 6 500 tonnes of tuna and other migratory species for 28 sliding seiners and six longliners. In return, the EU pays Liberia an annual compensation of €650,000 ($728,106), 50% of which is intended to support Liberia`s fisheries policy. The Commission has published an ex ante assessment of a possible VPA between the EU and Liberia and a protocol to focus on tuna. At present, there are no vessels authorised to fish for tuna in the Liberian EEZ, either under bilateral agreements, private licences or charters. According to a statement issued by the European Commission (EC), the agreement and protocol are fully in line with the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and will ensure that the fishing activities of EU vessels in Liberian waters are carried out in accordance with the principles of sustainability, good governance, transparency, non-discrimination and respect for human rights. Given the lack of reliable fisheries data on the status of these stocks and overall fishing effort, it is not possible for the EU and Liberia to identify a potential surplus, which forms the basis for access through an agreement. In addition, the cfFA considers that such an extension of the agreement, in particular to shrimp trawl fishing, would present significant risks in terms of sustainability and artisanal fishing and would threaten the exclusive zone (IEZ) on land, normally reserved for artisanal fishing, given that shrimp is located relatively close to the coast.
Sustainable fisheries agreements with third countries are negotiated and concluded by the Commission on behalf of the EU. There are two main types of agreements: first, tuna agreements that allow EU vessels to track migratory tuna while moving along the African coasts and the Indian Ocean; and, secondly, mixed agreements allowing access to a large number of fish stocks in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the partner country. It`s possible. For example, Guinea-Bissau was firm in its negotiations for a new agreement with the EU when its old agreement expired in 2017. After a year of negotiations, the EU proposed a much better deal than what had been proposed previously. In exchange for five-year access to 50 EU fishing vessels, the EU pays Guinea-Bissau €15.6 million per year. The rate of the previous agreement was €9.2 million. Sea fishing plays an important role in the food and economic security of millions of people in West Africa. Once stocks are depleted, the small-scale fishermen who depend on them will not be able to get a decent income and many people will lose their main source of protein. Competition for comprehensive resources is already leading to conflicts between fishermen and foreign fishing vessels. . .